Moniqueka E. Gold et al

ISBN-13: 978-1-945628-58-0

# pages: 472


Suggested Retail: $94.95



This textbook, Introduction to Special Education: The Spectrum of Exceptionalities has been a journey. Each contributing author brought to this project a unique perspective on abilities and disabilities. Each brought to the project a yearning to broaden and build capacity among our readers to develop a deeper understanding and appreciation of those with disabilities.

Whether you are new to the world of disabilities, inclusion, and cultural differences or not, our goal is to provide a research-based textbook that will foster academic excellence, encourage professional development, and increase inclusivity of people of all functioning levels.

The focus of this textbook is people with disabilities and how those disabilities affect their inclusion into society. We explored the characteristics of disabilities and identified the research-based interventions that could be used effectively in today’s classrooms.

For the lead author, this text aims to promote mentoring—mentoring junior faculty and aspiring graduate students in Education who are new in the academy. I hope this book will be encouraging and interesting and will make you think of the most positive and meaningful ways you can contribute to the lives of those with disabilities.

  • Each chapter begins with a scenario that aspiring teachers may encounter in the classroom that relates to the chapter contents 
  • A dedicated chapter that compares and contrasts appropriate instructional strategies to use in elementary and secondary settings 
  • A chapter that focuses on culturally responsive pedagogy to address the unique learning needs of students with disabilities
  • Text includes examples of sample documents used in special education

Table of Contents

Part 1  Foundations of Special Education

CHAPTER 1 A Brief History of Special Education 3 Anthony R. Sanders, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 2 UDL, Inclusion and Differentiated Instruction 17 Erin Lynch, Ed.D.

CHAPTER 3 Response to Intervention and Collaboration 57 Lori Morris, Ed.D.

CHAPTER 4 Instructional Strategies: Comparing and Contasting Elementary and Secondary Education 75 Tangie Carter, M.A.T., Hanrui He, M.A.T., and M. E. Gold, Ed.D., TVI

CHAPTER 5 Assessment and Special Education 91 Erin Lynch, Ed.D.

PART TWO High Incidence Disabilities

CHAPTER 6 In Pursuit of Accuracy: Identifying Individuals with Learning Disabilities 123 Heraldo Richards, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 7 Autism Spectrum Disorders 141 Larry Lowrance, Ed.D. and John R. McConnell, III, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 8 Speech/Language Impairments 171 Avril Bingue, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 9 Early Childhood/Interventions and the Family Partnership 191 Sandra Nichols, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 10 Emotional/Behavioral Disorders 213 Eva Gibson, Ed.D., Thurman E. Webb, Jr., Ed.D., and Winifred D. Bedford, M.S. 

PART THREE Low Incidence Disabilities

CHAPTER 11 Other Health Impaired 233 Lori Morris, Ed.D.

CHAPTER 12 Intellectual Disabilities 261 Clinton Smith, Ed.D.

CHAPTER 13 Introduction to Assistive Technology 277 Roddran Grimes, Ph.D. and Michelle Doty, Ed.D.

CHAPTER 14 Gifted and Talented Education: An Overview 295 Donna Y. Ford, Ph.D. and Brian L. Wright, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 15 Multiple Disabilities 315 Shannon A. Bridges, M.A., Olivia P. Robinson, M.A., and Kagendo Mutua, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 16 Orthopedic Impairments 345 Amy Williamson, Ph.D., Catherine Price, Ph.D., and Kagendo Mutua, Ph.D.

CHAPTER 17 Sensory Impairments: Visual Impairments, Deafness, and Deaf-Blindness 369 M. E. Gold, Ed.D., TVI, Shannon Darst, Ph.D., TVI, and Marina McCormick, Ed.D.

CHAPTER 18 Multicultural Education in Consideration of Students with Exceptionalities 403 Charmaine Lowe, Ed.D. Appendix A: Sample Documents 419

Index 459

About the Author(s): Moniqueka E. Gold et al

Dr. Moniqueka Gold earned her Bachelor's degree in Elementary/Special Education from Austin Peay State University (APSU}, her Master's and Doctoral degrees from Vanderbilt University in Special Education and an MBA from Capella University.  She has held numerous teaching positions, made countless scholarly presentations, published in peer-reviewed journals and has an active community service agenda.

Winifred Bedford, M.S.—Winifred Bedford is a Ph.D student in the School Psychology program at Tennessee State University. She is passionate about actively engaging in research related to Childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI), Attention Hyperactive-Deficit Disorder (ADHD), academic microaggressions, and culturally adapted mindfulness-based interventions. Her previous clinical experience includes bilingual assessment testing (cognitive, behavioral, personality, developmental, achievement, and neuropsychological batteries), cross cultural assessments, and bilingual counseling. In addition to research, outreach, and testing, Winifred is an avid traveler and has a deep appreciation for cultural complexities. She has studied in Madrid, Spain and gained many other fascinating cultural experiences all over the world. In her spare time, she reluctantly enjoys writing about herself in third person!

Avril Bingue, Ph.D.—Dr. Avril Bingue has been an educator for over twenty years, having taught Special Education at the K-12 level and various courses at the university level. She has taught college from as far away as Seoul, South Korea, to all the way to Savannah, Georgia. She is a consummate learner, having amassed five degrees, culminating in her Ph.D. in Education. Dr. Bingue proudly served in the US Army, reaching the rank of Captain in Military Intelligence. She has published and presented with various educational outlets, and has written her first children’s book, Tempest Fugit! Time Flies. Originally from the Bronx, NY, she moved to southern New Jersey at the age of four, Avril currently lives in Las Vegas with her incredible son, Eugene, and their smart schnoodle, Data.

Shannon Bridges, M. A.—Shannon Bridges has worked with children and young adults with intellectual disabilities for twenty years. She graduated from Jacksonville State University with a Bachelor’s in Collaborative Education (K-6) and received a Master’s in Severe Disabilities Education from The University of Alabama (UA). Before attending the UA as a graduate research assistant, Shannon taught students with moderate and severe disabilities in the public education system for six years. She is the founder of the program Fit Friends, which works to teach individuals with intellectual disabilities the importance of developing healthy lifestyles. Currently, Shannon is a graduate student at the UA working towards her Ph.D. in Special Education. Her research interests include independent living, community participation, and evidence-based practices in transition.

Tangie Carter, M.A.T.—Tangie Carter was born and raised in Tennessee. She recently earned her Master of Arts in Teaching degree in special education from Austin Peay State University. Her goals are to educate students with learning disabilities and develop educational policies that benefit students and their families. Tangie’s hobbies include researching, writing, playing the trumpet, and spending time with loved ones. One of her favorite educational quotes is by Dr. Rita Pierson: “Every child deserves a champion—an adult who will never give up on them.”

Shannon D. Darst, Ph.D., TVI—Shannon Darst is an assistant professor in the Visual Impairment Preparation Program at Stephen F. Austin State University and an adjunct professor and internship coordinator for the Teacher of Students with Visual Impairments preparation program at Texas Tech University. Dr. Darst worked in both a residential setting and in the itinerant service model for students with visual impairments for over 20 years in the central Texas area before moving into full-time work in TVI personnel preparation. Dr. Darst has extensive experience in working with students with DeafBlindness, including eight years in teaching music and music appreciation to students with DeafBlindness. Dr. Darst is a board member of the Texas Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired and serves as a member of the subcommittee of the Texas Action Committee for the Education of Students with Visual Impairments, which developed VISSIT and the O&M VISSIT (Visual Impairment Scale of Service Intensity of Texas), the service intensity recommendation tools.

Michelle Doty, Ed.D.—Dr. Michelle Doty is a Professor and Coordinator of Special Education at Lewis-Clark State College (LCSC) in Lewiston, Idaho. She is responsible for program coordination and design of all special education coursework within the special education minor. She also teaches special education courses within the Elementary and Secondary Education majors. She is responsible for advising students, supervising interns, teaching, program accreditation, and other scholarly activities. Prior to coming to LCSC in 2005, Dr. Doty spent thirteen years at the University of Idaho, Center on Disabilities and Human Development and the Idaho Assistive Technology Project as a Project Coordinator. Dr. Doty completed her education doctorate at the University of Idaho (U of I) in Curriculum and Instruction with a concentration in Special Education. The focus of her study was on Postsecondary Transition Programs: How One Idaho School District Provides Services for Young Adults with Disabilities Between the Ages of 18–21. She earned a bachelor’s and master’s degree in Special Education at the U of I as well. Research interests include Postsecondary Transition, Positive Behavior Supports, and Assistive Technology.

Donna Y. Ford, Ph.D.—Donna Y. Ford, PhD, is a professor and Cornelius Vanderbilt Endowed Chair at Vanderbilt University. Her scholarship focuses on the under-representation of students of color and those who live in poverty in gifted and talented education. She is an unapologetic advocate for equity in her publications and consulting with school districts and organizations. Dr Ford is widely published, with several books and over 100 publications and presentations that have a central theme of the recruiting and retaining of students of color in gifted and talented education.

Eva Gibson, Ed.D.—Dr. Eva M. Gibson is an Assistant Professor in the department of Psychological Science and Counseling at Austin Peay State University. Prior to becoming a full-time counselor educator, Dr. Gibson spent eleven years in the public school system as a licensed professional school counselor. During this period, Dr. Gibson served as the 504 Plan coordinator, assisted with the provision of services for students with individual education plans, and facilitated the implementation of behavior programs. Additional experience includes employment at a residential facility for individuals with disabilities. Dr. Gibson’s research interests include interventions for at-risk students.

Roddran Grimes, Ph.D.—Dr. Roddran Grimes is currently an Assistant Professor of Special Education at Georgia College and State University in Milledgeville, Georgia. She is a cohort mentor leader for 17 undergraduates and teaches research-based courses for the Special Education undergraduate and graduate programs. She is a former Assistant Professor of Special Education at Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, Idaho. Born in Gary, Indiana, Dr. Grimes was educated at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana where she earned her Bachelor’s degree in Safety Management and her Ph.D. degree in Curriculum and Instruction with a concentration in Special Education. She earned her Master’s degree in Health Policy and Health Administration from Mercer University. Her dissertation examined middle school special education reading teachers’ experiences utilizing Study Island (an online education program) to enhance male student literacy. Her research interests include (1) studying the effects of implementing school-wide positive behavior interventions and support, (2) investigating male underachievement in P-12 schools, and (3) examining teacher effectiveness and improvement strategies.

Hanrui He, M.A.T.—Hanrui was born and raised in Hubei, China. She was an English teacher at a language center for years before moving to America in 2014. Since then, she has taught Pre-K for two years and recently earned her Master of Arts in Teaching degree in special education from Austin Peay State University. Hanrui plans to pursue a terminal degree in education and research on educational diversity and collaboration between China and the U.S. Hanrui and her husband have a beautiful two-year-old daughter, Enya. Enya’s name works in both Chinese and English, which means to be grateful and graceful. They currently live in Tennessee and really enjoy the rural life there.

Charmaine Lowe, Ed.D.—Dr. Charmaine Lowe is an Associate Professor of Education in the Martha Dickerson Eriksson College of Education at Austin Peay State University. In addition to developing and teaching a battery of courses related to culturally and linguistically diverse students, she serves as the Coordinator for the English Language Learners Endorsement program and the Kindergarten through fifth grade licensure program. Dr. Lowe additionally functions as the primary faculty sponsor of Kappa Delta Pi, the international honor society in Education, having revitalized the local, institutional chapter. She is a member of the governing board of National Social Sciences Association (NSSA) and serves as the chair of its Editorial Committee.

Larry Lowrance, Ed.D.—Larry Lowrance, a retired Professor of special education, has worked with children and adults with autism for many years as a public school special education teacher, in psychiatric hospitals and in private practice as a licensed school psychologist and advocate. Currently, Dr. Lowrance is working as a licensed school psychologist in a public school. He conducted statewide training in two states, Missouri and Mississippi, as autism became a diagnostic category under IDEA, to prepare schools, teachers and psychologists to properly diagnose these children under both DSM and IDEA criteria. He has taught graduate and undergraduate coursework in autism, both introductory and methods courses as well as the use of standardized and clinically based methods to diagnose and treat persons with autism. Trained by Ivar Lovaas in Applied Behavior Analysis, he has taught ABA to many college students who have become BCBAs and special education teachers.

Erin Lynch, Ed.D.—Erin Lynch is a certified research administrator and serves as the Associate Provost of Scholarship, Research and Innovation at the Winston-Salem State University in Winston-Salem, NC. She is a former high school English teacher, and former Assistant Professor of Special Education. Her research expertise is program evaluation and intervention design for underrepresented minority populations in educational systems.

Lori Morris, Ed.D.—Lori Morris is an Assistant Professor of Education at Austin Peay State University. Prior to joining the special education faculty at Austin Peay State University, she served as the Director of Assessment Design for Special Populations at the Tennessee Department of Education. Dr. Morris is a former Special Education Supervisor and served as a classroom teacher for students with disabilities in both public school settings and residential facilities. Dr. Morris has a Doctorate of Education in Educational Leadership from East Tennessee State University and a Master’s in Special Education with a focus in Emotional Disturbance and Autism from Auburn University.

John R. McConnell, III, Ph.D.—John R. McConnell III, is an Associate Professor of Educational Research for the Eriksson College of Education at Austin Peay State University. He specializes in research design and the analysis of institutional data, advocates for the recruitment, retention, and graduation of all students, including those with disabilities. He serves as the Associate Dean of the college and advisor for Full Spectrum Learning, which promotes independent learning for students on the autism spectrum at the university level. Prior to higher education, he taught for six years in an inner-city public-school system.

Marina McCormick, Ed.D.—Marina McCormick has 18 years of experience in the field of special education as both a teacher of the deaf and as a special education administrator. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Education for Persons with Hearing Loss from the Robert E. Cook Honors College of Indiana University of Pennsylvania and her Master of Education degree in Multicultural Urban Special Education from the University of St. Thomas in Houston, Texas. She received her doctorate in Professional Leadership with a focus on Special Populations from The University of Houston. In addition, she received her principal certification as part of the Rice Education Entrepreneurship Program (REEP) at Rice University. She is also a published author with her work appearing in both the Council for Exceptional Children’s Division of Vision Impairments and Deafblindness Quarterly and Texas SenseAbilities publications.

Kagendo Mutua, Ph.D.—Kagendo Mutua is a professor of Special Education at The University of Alabama. Her scholarship is concerned with social justice issues of access and participation. Her work with adolescents and youth with severe disabilities in the US connects their identities with other marginalized groups cross-culturally as she tries to understand how marginality constitutes itself around issues of disability, race, class/poverty, gender, and national origin. In her scholarship, Dr. Mutua invokes decolonizing/postcolonial theory and disability studies both as theoretical perspectives and analytic tools to understand how marginality is produced and maintained, and how marginality factors into access and participation for those individuals. She is the co-founder and director of the CrossingPoints program at The University of Alabama, which is an inclusive postsecondary transition program for students with intellectual disabilities and other significant disabilities. Her work has been published in several journals and numerous book chapters, and she is the co-editor, of an award-winning book titled Decolonizing Research in Cross-Cultural Contexts: Critical Personal Narratives.

Sandra Nichols, Ph.D.—Dr. Sandra C. Nichols is a Professor of Special Education and the Director of the School of Education at The University of Southern Mississippi. She studies the intersectionality of race, culture, socioeconomic status, and disability. Her scholarship also addresses special education teacher education and special educator recruitment and retention. Sandra has worked closely with students with disabilities and their families in early childhood through post-secondary educational settings. Additionally, Dr. Nichols has been heavily involved in grant-funded scholarship and implementation science in rural areas.

Catherine Price, Ph.D.—Catherine Price is an assistant professor of special education at Fairmont State University in Fairmont, West Virginia where she teaches both graduate and undergraduate classes both online and face to face, supervises interns, and serves on various committees. Prior to this position, Dr. Price worked as a clinical instructor at The University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where she taught undergraduate education courses, served as an intern supervisor, and worked on grants and publications. She served as a special education teacher in a K-12 public school in a rural county in Prattville, Alabama for 11 years. In this capacity, she served students with various disabilities from mild to moderate in grades K-6. Additionally, she served in various leadership positions including Positive Behavior Supports and Intervention, Leadership Committee, and Student Support Committee. Dr. Price has four grown children, the oldest with autism.

Heraldo Richards, Ph.D.—Dr. Heraldo Richards is the Interim Dean of the College of Education at Tennessee State University. Prior to his current appointment, he served as Associate Dean of Teacher Education for five years. Dr. Richards holds a doctorate in learning disabilities from Northwestern University. His research focuses on the effective instruction and assessment of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. He has written and presented extensively on the impact of culture and language on the assessment of students with learning disabilities.

Olivia P. Robinson, M.A.—Olivia Robinson is in her final year of her Ph.D. in Special Education at The University of Alabama. She received her bachelor’s degree in Collaborative Special Education and her master’s in Severe Disabilities Education from The University of Alabama. Olivia’s research interests are in exploring social justice issues of access and participation by youth with significant intellectual disabilities in community, postsecondary education, and employment. Ms. Robinson’s current research explores the use of evidence-based strategies in supporting youth with intellectual disabilities in the achievement of desired employment outcomes in inclusive settings. Olivia taught in the CrossingPoints program prior to embarking on her Ph.D. program.

Anthony R. Sanders, Ph.D.—Anthony R. Sanders is an Associate Professor of Educational Leadership for the Eriksson College of Education at Austin Peay State University. Prior to his tenure at Austin Peay, he served in various capacities as a teacher, principal, and school administrator in the Kentucky public schools. In addition, he worked in Daviess County as a superintendent intern/assistant superintendent, and in the Kentucky Department of Education as a District Support Facilitator and later District Achievement Gap Coordinator. Dr. Sanders has a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Educational Leadership from the University of Louisville, and a Master of Arts in Education degree from Murray State University. He holds other degrees from the University of Kentucky Community College System (now KCTCS-Hopkinsville) and Western Kentucky University.

Clinton Smith, Ed.D.—Dr. Clinton Smith, BCBA-D, is an Associate Professor of Special Education at The University of Tennessee at Martin. He is a former special education teacher who has worked in a variety of settings (e.g., co-teacher, resource, behavior specialist) at the middle and high school levels. He is also a certified coach for the Special Olympics in the areas of basketball and athletics. In 2010, Clinton coached Team Tennessee to the gold medal in basketball at the USA National Games; and in 2014, he was the head coach for Team Tennessee Athletics where the athletes won multiple gold, silver, and bronze medals at the USA National Games. He also serves as the area director for Special Olympics Tennessee Upper West Region.

Thurman E. Webb, Jr., Ed.D.—Dr. Thurman E. Webb Jr. is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Tennessee State University. Dr. Webb serves as coordinator and provides instruction for the College of Education in the Professional School Counseling program. Prior to becoming a fulltime counselor educator, Dr. Webb spent nine years in the public school system where he served as a licensed professional school counselor and worked with students with disabilities on a daily basis. In addition to this certification, he is a Licensed Professional Counselor as well as a Certified Life Coach. His research interests are aligned with the success of underrepresented populations, as well as the successful creation and/or implementation of pedagogical strategies that enhance collective learning, ensure cultural proficiency, and are immediately resilient (sustainable).

Amy Williamson, Ph.D.—Amy Williamson currently serves as the CrossingPoints Program Coordinator at The University of Alabama. She has worked with young adults with intellectual disabilities for over 15 years, both through the education system and with other community-based programing. Dr. Williamson’s true passion lies in supporting individuals with intellectual disabilities in realizing their value and reaching far beyond what they ever thought was possible. Her research centers around human rights, transition programing, and other transition related areas such as sexuality and disability. She serves on various local, statewide, and national committees as an advocate to further transition opportunities both in the community and in institutions of higher education

Brian L. Wright, Ph.D.—Brian L. Wright, Ph.D., is an assistant professor and program coordinator of early childhood education in the Department of Instruction and Curriculum Leadership in the College of Education at the University of Memphis, in Tennessee. Dr. Wright’s research focuses on high-achieving African American boys in urban pre-K-12 schools, racial-ethnic identity development of boys and young men of color, African American males as early childhood teachers, and teacher identity development. Dr. Wright is the author of The Brilliance of Black Boys: Cultivating School Success in the Early Grades (Teachers College Press).

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